Classical Argument Explanation:

  1. The study of argumentation involves two components: truth seeking and persuasion. Though the two components may seem at odds, the apparent paradox can be resolved by eliminating the simplistic notions of argument as fight or merely pro/con debate.
  2. Classical arguments were traditionally speeches composed of distinct parts, including the exordium, narratio, propositio, partitio, confirmatio, confutatio, and peroratio.
  3. Beginning arguers usually progress through five stages. They start by merely asserting a personal opinion, and end up being able to link a claim and stated reason to the values and beliefs of their intended audience.
  4. British philosopher Stephen Toulmin provided a theory and terminology for analyzing and constructing effective arguments that places abstract, deductive reasoning into a more social framework.
  5. To be persuasive, arguments must use evidence effectively, and there are five different categories of evidence regularly used to support arguments. Furthermore, there are four different tests of reliability for each kind of evidence.
  6. Effective arguers traditionally use one of two different approaches to respond to objections, counterarguments, or alternative views.
  7. In addition to the logical and factual aspects of an argument (its logos), effective arguments also rely upon appeals of ethos (the credibility of the author) and pathos (the emotions, beliefs, and values of the audience).
  8. Arguments can be categorized into types of claims, including definitional, causal, resemblance, value, and policy.
  9. There are several different informal fallacies that effective arguers should be careful to avoid.


Scoring Rubric for Classical Argument: